Archive for June, 2011

Zimbra mailbox import/export and migration of e-mail filter rules

Monday, June 27th, 2011

Zimbra has a fantastically useful built in system for exporting an entire mailbox, including the contents of the entire e-mail inbox, calendar, address book and briefcase ready to be imported on another Zimbra server either via the web interface or using zmmailbox from the command line. This makes migrating mailboxes between separate Zimbra installations incredibly easy.

You can export a chosen mailbox from the source Zimbra server with:

zmmailbox -z -m getRestURL “//?fmt=tgz” > /tmp/

And then import it into the destination server with:

zmmailbox -z -m postRestURL “//?fmt=tgz&resolve=reset” /tmp/

You need to make sure that the target account exists before attempting to import the archive on the destination server. Using the “reset” resolve method will ensure that everything is wiped from the target account before importing from the archive.

Simply replace “tgz” with “zip” in order to chose between the two archive formats when importing and exporting, making sure to use the right one on the import!

If you want to download a copy of an account from your browser, just visit the appropriate URL (e.g. where “user” is the account’s username) or use the nice Import/Export GUI in the Zimbra preferences tab, which also gives you the option to upload and import an archive.

The Zimbra preference interface to the export function also allows you to easily specify advanced settings such as date ranges, search filters or limiting the export to a certain data type such as calendar items.

The one problem with Zimbra’s import/export system is that user settings such as signatures and mail filters which are stored in an account’s LDAP attributes aren’t included in the exported data. It’s easy enough to manually move signatures between servers, but anything more than a couple of mail filters can be tedious to manually re-create.

Luckily, you can get the information you need from the zimbraMailSieveScript attribute for a chosen account using the zmprov command line utility:

zmprov ga zimbraMailSieveScript

This should give you something a copy of your mail filter rules in the sieve format, for example:

require [“fileinto”, “reject”, “tag”, “flag”];

# No Reply
if anyof (header :contains [“to”] “”) {
fileinto “Inbox/No Reply”;

You can then easily re-import this into LDAP on the destination server by placing single quotes around the result and using “zmprov ma”:

zmprov ma zimbraMailSieveScript ‘require [“fileinto”, “reject”, “tag”, “flag”];

# No Reply
if anyof (header :contains [“to”] “”) {
fileinto “Inbox/No Reply”;

You can of course apply the same technique to other account details if you wish, you just need to know the appropriate LDAP attribute, such as zimbraPrefMailSignatureHTML for your signature or zimbraPrefOutOfOfficeReply for your out of office auto reply.

Parallels Plesk and Atomic Secured Linux

Monday, June 27th, 2011

If you are experiencing HTTP 500 Internal Server Error messages from the license management part of the Parallels Plesk control panel when running on Atomic Secured Linux, then you are probably running into some buggy anti-reverse engineering code that Parallels have built into the Plesk software.

It seems that Parallels are using ptrace to determine if someone has attached a debugger to Plesk in order to reverse engineer it. The problem is that AtomiCorp have implemented GRSecurity ptrace protection in the Atomic Secured Linux kernel in order to prevent malicious software such as TTY sniffers and Parallels Plesk is incorrectly interpreting it’s inability to ptrace as suspicious debugging behaviour.

Until Parallels fix this behaviour in Plesk (and there is no sign that they will, given that it has been a known issue for many months), then the only thing that you can to is disable the GRSecurity ptrace feature in the Atomic Secured Linux kernel. This can be done whilst the system is running using sysctl:

sysctl -w kernel.grsecurity.harden_ptrace=0

In order to make this change permanent so that it doesn’t disappear every time you reboot your server, you will need to edit /etc/sysctl.conf and add the following line:

kernel.grsecurity.harden_ptrace = 0

Now restart the Parallels Plesk service and enjoy your error free license management 🙂

EPEL NSD RPM and the missing PID file directory

Sunday, June 26th, 2011

NSD is a fantastic authoritative nameserver from NLnet Labs which was developed in conjunction with the RIPE NCC to be a highly scalable, secure authoritative nameserver which has no recursive features by design. In fact, it is such as good nameserver that it is used on three of the root namesevers (, and

Thanks to the EPEL project run by the Fedora guys, you can quickly and easily install an up to date copy of NSD on CentOS/RHEL systems. The only problem that I have found so far is that the RPM doesn’t seem to create directory for the PID file specified in the /etc/nsd/nsd.conf and so the daemon won’t start out of the box.

Obviously it is easy enough to create the /var/run/nsd directory with mkdir, but remember to chown/chgrp this directory to the nsd user and group, otherwise and “nsdc restart” will fail with errors in /var/log/messages along the lines of “failed to unlink pidfile /var/run/nsd/ Permission denied

Remove CDP 2.0 cPanel integration

Sunday, June 19th, 2011

A handy feature of R1Soft CDP Server 2.0 (now known as Enterprise Edition) is that it can integrate with cPanel so that your users can restore their own files from your backups using a self service interface. If you want to remove this integration for any reason, then R1Soft provide a BASH shell script to do this for you:


This script doesn’t always work for one reason or another, so the other way of doing this is to manually call the cPanel plugin uninstaller:

/usr/local/cpanel/bin/unregister_cpanelplugin /var/cpanel/registered_cpanelplugins/righteousbackup

This is particularly helpful if you forgot to uninstall the cPanel integration before upgrading to R1Soft CDP 3.0 or thought that the r1soft-uninstall-buagent utility would do it for you when removing the R1Soft CDP 2.0 agent (unfortunately it doesn’t, but it does helpfully remove the script).

Unfortunately the cPanel integration in R1Soft CDP 3.0 is severely lacking compared to R1Soft CDP 2.0 and in my opinion is virtually useless in it’s current form.

As the control panel integration system is a pretty new feature in R1Soft CDP 3.0 (it was missing entirely from the initial release), hopefully it will be bolstered in subsequent R1Soft CDP 3.0 releases to restore it to the same level of functionality as was formerly available in R1Soft CDP 2.0.

R1Soft CDP 3.0 and commercial SSL certificates

Sunday, June 12th, 2011

Chances are that you will want to protect the web interface for your R1Soft CDP 3.0 server with a commercial SSL certificate issued by a known, trusted certificate authority. After all, you are sending some pretty sensitive data between your browser the and the R1Soft CDP 3.0 web interface and you want to know not only that it is encrypted but that you are able to ensure the identity of the R1Soft CDP 3.0 server so that you aren’t susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks.

This post assumes that you have generated a CSR and sent it to your chosen certificate authority to be signed. We use /root/example.key as the private key and /root/example.crt as the PEM certificate that you received back from the certificate authority. The certificate authority’s intermediate certificate is in /root/example_intermediate.crt. Obviously substitute these file names for whatever you have actually used.

In order to use the ImportKey utility to import your private key and certificate into the Java keystore file you will need to convert both the private key and certificate from the PEM format into DER using the openssl tool.

openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -nocrypt -in /root/example.key -inform PEM -out /root/example.key.der -outform DER
openssl x509 -in /root/example.crt -inform PEM -out /root/example.crt.der -outform DER

For some reason the java and keytool binaries provided by R1Soft aren’t executable by default, so lets fix this and download the ImportKey utility

cd /usr/sbin/r1soft/jre/bin
chmod +x java
chmod +x keytool

Now lets use ImportKey to create a Java keystore with your private key and newly issued certificate.

./java ImportKey /root/example.key.der /root/example.crt.der

The ImportKey utility sets a password on both the keystore itself and the private key inside the keystore. For the R1Soft CDP 3.0 web server to be able to decrypt the keystore and private key it needs to know what the password is. Unfortunately there is no way to specify the password to use, the R1Soft CDP 3.0 embedded tomcat web server just assumes that both passwords are set to “password”, so we had better change the password from the default which is “importkey”.

./keytool -storepasswd -keystore /root/keystore.ImportKey
./keytool -keypasswd -alias importkey -keystore /root/keystore.ImportKey

Most SSL certificates aren’t signed directly from the root certificate authority these days, but instead are signed via an intermediate certificate. In order for the certificate to be useable, the entire certificate chain needs to be available in the keystore for the R1Soft CDP 3.0 web server, so we will import the intermediate certificate. Remember to use your newly set keystore password.

./keytool -import -alias intermed -file /root/example_intermediate.crt -keystore /root/keystore.ImportKey -trustcacerts

Now to start using your new keystore, just move the old one out of the way (better keep it around for now, just in case!) and replace it with your newly generated keystore then restart the service for the R1Soft CDP 3.0 server.

mv /usr/sbin/r1soft/conf/keystore /usr/sbin/r1soft/conf/keystore.old
mv /root/keystore.ImportKey /usr/sbin/r1soft/conf/keystore
/etc/init.d/cdp-server restart

R1Soft CDP 3.0 with Atomic Secured Linux and PAX

Sunday, June 12th, 2011

If you want to run R1Soft CDP 3.0 on a system protected by Atomic Secured Linux and the ASL enhanced kernel with PaX/grsecurity then you need to disable memory protection for the CDP 3.0 binary. You do this by using paxctl to set the NOMPROTECT flag for the CDP 3.0 binary.

/sbin/paxctl -m /usr/sbin/r1soft/bin/2-6/cdp-2-6

Unfortunately the CDP 3.0 binary lacks the PT_PAX_FLAGS header, so you will receive an error message along the lines of:

file /usr/sbin/r1soft/bin/2-6/cdp-2-6 does not have a PT_PAX_FLAGS program header, try conversion

The solution to this is to first use paxctl to run a conversion on the CDP 3.0 binary which should change the PT_GNU_STACK header to PT_PAX_FLAGS

/sbin/paxctl -c /usr/sbin/r1soft/bin/2-6/cdp-2-6

If this has worked then you should see a message along the lines of

file /usr/sbin/r1soft/bin/2-6/cdp-2-6 had a PT_GNU_STACK program header, converted

Now you should be able to use paxctl to set the NOMPROTECT flag on the CDP 3.0 binary without any errors. Now restart the R1Soft CDP 3.0 agent service and have fun backing up all your previous data 🙂

Fortinet FortiOS firmware upgrade – Upload file is too big or invalid

Sunday, June 5th, 2011

If you receive an “Upload file is too big or invalid” error message when trying to upload a new FortiOS image to your Fortinet device via the web interface, then the first thing to try is giving the device a quick reboot in order to free up memory to hold the uploaded copy of the firmware image.

If this doesn’t fix the problem, then I’ve had much more success with running the update process from command line, although this does require you to have the new FortiOS image on a TFTP server so that the Fortinet device can download it. Once you have issued the command, the device will download the new image and reboot.

The exact command varies depending on the deice type, for example FortiGate devices have the option of FTP or TFTP downloads, whilst FortiMail devices can only download new FortiOS images via TFTP.

For a FortiGate device:

exec restore image tftp

For a FortiManager device running FortiOS 3.x:

exec restore image

For a FortiManager device running FortiOS 4.x:

exec restore image tftp

For a FortiAnalyser device running FortiOS 3.x:

exec restore image

For a FortiAnalyser device running FortiOS 4.x:

exec restore image tftp

For a FortiMail device running FortiOS 3.x:

exec restore image

For a FortiMail device running FortiOS 4.x:

exec restore image tftp

Depending on the device and FortiOS version, you may have other file transfer options such as FTP available to you. Devices registered with a FortiManager can also update their FortiOS image by downloading a new one from the FortiManager unit.

If you are still having problems getting the new FortiOS firmware image onto your Fortinet device, then you can also download a FortiOS image via TFTP from within the Fortinet bootloader/BIOS using the serial console.

Connect a serial console to your device and reboot it, then interrupt the boot sequence when prompted. In the menu, select the option to download a new FortiOS firmware image and provide the file name, server IP address and local IP address.

Right at the start of the bot process, you should see a message along the line of:

Press any key to display configuration menu…

Once you have pressed a key, then the following configuration menu should appear:

[G]: Get firmware image from TFTP server.
[F]: Format boot device.
[B]: Boot with backup firmware and set as default.
[I]: Configuration and information.
[Q]: Quit menu and continue to boot with default firmware.
[H]: Display this list of options.

Enter G,F,B,I,Q,or H:

At the configuration menu, type “G” and press enter and you will be asked to enter the details needed to TFTP a new image to your Fortinet device:

Enter TFTP server address []:
Enter local address []:
Enter firmware image file name [image.out]:

You will need to be on the same subnet as the TFTP server in order to do this.